Tag: Issues

Patch Madness: Vendor Bug Advisories Are Broken, So Broken

Duston Childs and Brian Gorenc of ZDI take the opportunity at Black Hat USA to break down the many vulnerability disclosure issues making patch prioritization a nightmare scenario for many orgs.Duston Childs and Brian Gorenc of ZDI take the opportunity at Black Hat USA to break down the many vulnerability disclosure issues making patch prioritization a nightmare scenario for many orgs.Read More

Sounding the Alarm on Emergency Alert System Flaws

The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is urging states and localities to beef up security around proprietary devices that connect to the Emergency Alert System — a national public warning system used to deliver important emergency information, such as severe weather and AMBER alerts. The DHS warning came in advance of a workshop to be held this weekend at the DEFCON security conference in Las Vegas, where a security researcher is slated to demonstrate multiple weaknesses in the nationwide alert system.

A Digital Alert Systems EAS encoder/decoder that Pyle said he acquired off eBay in 2019. It had the username and password for the system printed on the machine.

The DHS warning was prompted by security researcher Ken Pyle, a partner at security firm Cybir. Pyle said he started acquiring old EAS equipment off of eBay in 2019, and that he quickly identified a number of serious security vulnerabilities in a device that is broadly used by states and localities to encode and decode EAS alert signals.

“I found all kinds of problems back then, and reported it to the DHS, FBI and the manufacturer,” Pyle said in an interview with KrebsOnSecurity. “But nothing ever happened. I decided I wasn’t going to tell anyone about it yet because I wanted to give people time to fix it.”

Pyle said he took up the research again in earnest after an angry mob stormed the U.S. Capitol on Jan. 6, 2021.

“I was sitting there thinking, ‘Holy shit, someone could start a civil war with this thing,”’ Pyle recalled. “I went back to see if this was still a problem, and it turns out it’s still a very big problem. So I decided that unless someone actually makes this public and talks about it, clearly nothing is going to be done about it.”

The EAS encoder/decoder devices Pyle acquired were made by Lyndonville, NY-based Digital Alert Systems (formerly Monroe Electronics, Inc.), which issued a security advisory this month saying it released patches in 2019 to fix the flaws reported by Pyle, but that some customers are still running outdated versions of the device’s firmware. That may be because the patches were included in version 4 of the firmware for the EAS devices, and many older models apparently do not support the new software.

“The vulnerabilities identified present a potentially serious risk, and we believe both were addressed in software updates issued beginning Oct 2019,” EAS said in a written statement. “We also provided attribution for the researcher’s responsible disclosure, allowing us to rectify the matters before making any public statements. We are aware that some users have not taken corrective actions and updated their software and should immediately take action to update the latest software version to ensure they are not at risk. Anything lower than version 4.1 should be updated immediately. On July 20, 2022, the researcher referred to other potential issues, and we trust the researcher will provide more detail. We will evaluate and work to issue any necessary mitigations as quickly as possible.”

But Pyle said a great many EAS stakeholders are still ignoring basic advice from the manufacturer, such as changing default passwords and placing the devices behind a firewall, not directly exposing them to the Internet, and restricting access only to trusted hosts and networks.

Pyle, in a selfie that is heavily redacted because the EAS device behind him had its user credentials printed on the lid.

Pyle said the biggest threat to the security of the EAS is that an attacker would only need to compromise a single EAS station to send out alerts locally that can be picked up by other EAS systems and retransmitted across the nation.

“The process for alerts is automated in most cases, hence, obtaining access to a device will allow you to pivot around,” he said. “There’s no centralized control of the EAS because these devices are designed such that someone locally can issue an alert, but there’s no central control over whether I am the one person who can send or whatever. If you are a local operator, you can send out nationwide alerts. That’s how easy it is to do this.”

One of the Digital Alert Systems devices Pyle sourced from an electronics recycler earlier this year was non-functioning, but whoever discarded it neglected to wipe the hard drive embedded in the machine. Pyle soon discovered the device contained the private cryptographic keys and other credentials needed to send alerts through Comcast, the nation’s third-largest cable company.

“I can issue and create my own alert here, which has all the valid checks or whatever for being a real alert station,” Pyle said in an interview earlier this month. “I can create a message that will start propagating through the EAS.”

Comcast told KrebsOnSecurity that “a third-party device used to deliver EAS alerts was lost in transit by a trusted shipping provider between two Comcast locations and subsequently obtained by a cybersecurity researcher.

“We’ve conducted a thorough investigation of this matter and have determined that no customer data, and no sensitive Comcast data, were compromised,” Comcast spokesperson David McGuire said.

The company said it also confirmed that the information included on the device can no longer be used to send false messages to Comcast customers or used to compromise devices within Comcast’s network, including EAS devices.

“We are taking steps to further ensure secure transfer of such devices going forward,” McGuire said. “Separately, we have conducted a thorough audit of all EAS devices on our network and confirmed that they are updated with currently available patches and are therefore not vulnerable to recently reported security issues. We’re grateful for the responsible disclosure and to the security research community for continuing to engage and share information with our teams to make our products and technologies ever more secure. Mr. Pyle informed us promptly of his research and worked with us as we took steps to validate his findings and ensure the security of our systems.”

The user interface for an EAS device.

Unauthorized EAS broadcast alerts have happened enough that there is a chronicle of EAS compromises over at fandom.com. Thankfully, most of these incidents have involved fairly obvious hoaxes.

According to the EAS wiki, in February 2013, hackers broke into the EAS networks in Great Falls, Mt. and Marquette, Mich. to broadcast an alert that zombies had risen from their graves in several counties. In Feb. 2017, an EAS station in Indiana also was hacked, with the intruders playing the same “zombies and dead bodies” audio from the 2013 incidents.

“On February 20 and February 21, 2020, Wave Broadband’s EASyCAP equipment was hacked due to the equipment’s default password not being changed,” the Wiki states. “Four alerts were broadcasted, two of which consisted of a Radiological Hazard Warning and a Required Monthly Test playing parts of the Hip Hop song Hot by artist Young Thug.”

In January 2018, Hawaii sent out an alert to cell phones, televisions and radios, warning everyone in the state that a missile was headed their way. It took 38 minutes for Hawaii to let people know the alert was a misfire, and that a draft alert was inadvertently sent. The news video clip below about the 2018 event in Hawaii does a good job of walking through how the EAS works.

The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is urging states and localities to beef up security around proprietary devices that connect to the Emergency Alert System — a national public warning system used to deliver important emergency information, such as severe weather and AMBER alerts. The DHS warning came in advance of a workshop to be held this weekend at the DEFCON security conference in Las Vegas, where a security researcher is slated to demonstrate multiple weaknesses in the nationwide alert system.Read More

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Researchers Warn of Ongoing Mass Exploitation of Zimbra RCE Vulnerability

The U.S. Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) on Thursday added two flaws to its Known Exploited Vulnerabilities Catalog, citing evidence of active exploitation.
The two high-severity issues relate to weaknesses in Zimbra Collaboration, both of which could be chained to achieve unauthenticated remote code execution on affected email servers –

CVE-2022-27925 (CVSS score: 7.2)The U.S. Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) on Thursday added two flaws to its Known Exploited Vulnerabilities Catalog, citing evidence of active exploitation.
The two high-severity issues relate to weaknesses in Zimbra Collaboration, both of which could be chained to achieve unauthenticated remote code execution on affected email servers –

CVE-2022-27925 (CVSS score: 7.2)Read More

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Critical Flaws Disclosed in Device42 IT Asset Management Software

Cybersecurity researchers have disclosed multiple severe security vulnerabilities asset management platform Device42 that, if successfully exploited, could enable a malicious actor to seize control of affected systems.
“By exploiting these issues, an attacker could impersonate other users, obtain admin-level access in the application (by leaking session with an LFI) or obtain full access to theCybersecurity researchers have disclosed multiple severe security vulnerabilities asset management platform Device42 that, if successfully exploited, could enable a malicious actor to seize control of affected systems.
“By exploiting these issues, an attacker could impersonate other users, obtain admin-level access in the application (by leaking session with an LFI) or obtain full access to theRead More

OpenTIP, command line edition

For more than a year, we have been providing free intelligence services via the OpenTIP portal. Using the web interface, anyone can upload and scan files with our antivirus engine, get a basic sandbox report, look up various network indicators (IP addresses, hosts, URLs). Later on, we presented an easy-to-use HTTPS-based programming interface, so that you could use the service in your own scripts and integrate it in existing workflow.

OpenTIP web interface – upload, look up, get results!

Of course, it is much easier to use the API when there is a set of working examples. It is also more convenient to integrate with existing tools and scripts when you have a command line utility that interacts with the service. We decided have both in one package, by releasing Python-based command line tools for the service that also implement a client class that you can reuse in your own tools.

A few words about privacy

The OpenTIP service has its own Terms of Use, End-User Agreement and a Privacy Policy; and the command line tools can only be accessed with an API token, that in turn can be only obtained after agreeing to all the terms. Please read them carefully. By default, the “opentip” scanner may upload the files being checked if their hashes are not yet known to the service, so please ensure that you are familiar with the policies. And, of course, the sample upload can be turned off.

Setting things up

The command line tools need the “apikey”, that is, a usual web API access token. You can generate it at this page (you may be required to register or log in into the web version of the service). The key can then be permanently set up as an environment variable “OPENTIP_APIKEY” or provided as a command line option “–apikey VALUE_OF_THE_KEY”. By default, the API key has certain rate limitations that may be changed in future, so please contact us if your scripts hit the rate limits.

The tools and the Python 3 client class can be all installed from pip:

pip3 install opentip

The code is also published on Github, so you can easily inspect and package it yourself. At the time of writing, the package has no external dependencies and should run on any modern Python 3 distribution.

Once installed, Python will also generate two executables (scripts, or binary wrappers, depending on the platform), named “opentip” and “check_iocs”.

The OpenTIP Scanner

The scanner is named “opentip” (or “opentip.exe”), as is the primary tool for quickly checking files and directories. The standard usage banner is pretty simple and self-descriptive:

usage: opentip [-h] [–no-upload] [–exclude EXCLUDE] [–log LOG] [–apikey APIKEY] [–quiet] path [path …]

Check files and directories with OpenTIP.kaspersky.com, optionally upload and scan unknown files

positional arguments:
path File or directory location to scan

optional arguments:
-h, –help show this help message and exit
–no-upload DO NOT upload unknown files to scan with the Sandbox, default behaviour is to upload
–exclude EXCLUDE Do not scan or upload the files matching the pattern
–log LOG Write results to the log file
–apikey APIKEY OpenTIP API key, received from https://opentip.kaspersky.com/token
–quiet Do not log clean files

The easiest and most basic mode of operation is to provide the location of the files or directories to scan. Directories are processed recursively, and unknown files are uploaded for checking by default (subject to the privacy policy, use “–no-upload” to change default behavior). The results are printed on stdout, and can also be redirected to a log file. The “–exclude” option allows you to disable the checks for any path locations, and with the “–quiet” option the script will print out only the positive detections.

$ opentip .
2022-08-01 16:23:22,638 ./package/main.py: Malware: Trojan.Python.Lofy.a
2022-08-01 16:23:22,766 ./package/package.json: NotCategorized
2022-08-01 16:23:22,965 ./package/index.js: NoThreats

Typical output of the scanner

Since the package has no external dependencies, it can be used to quickly deploy the scanner and check a fleet of remote machines, and the OPENTIP_APIKEY environment variable makes it easier to use the scanner in containers.

The IOC checker script

The second tool, named “check_iocs”, has a different purpose: you can use it to quickly query the OpenTIP service for file hashes, domains, IPs and URLs.

usage: check_iocs [-h] [–apikey APIKEY] [–out OUT] type value

Check IOCS (file hashes, IP addresses, domain names, URLs using the service OpenTIP.kaspersky.com

positional arguments:
type hash, ip, domain, url
value Value of the IOC (hash, ip, domain, url, filename with the iocs)

optional arguments:
-h, –help show this help message and exit
–apikey APIKEY OpenTIP API key, received from https://opentip.kaspersky.com/token
–out OUT, -o OUT Write output as JSON to this filename

The script requires two arguments: the type of the input data (“hash”, “ip”, “domain”, “url”, “filename”) and either the actual value of the data to check, or the path of the filename that contains the list of values, one per line.

$check_iocs hash list_of_md5.txt
[IOC]: d41d8cd98f00b204e9800998ecf8427e : Unknown
[IOC]: 46c5070ed139ca8121c07eda20587e3f : {‘Zone’: ‘Grey’, ‘FileGeneralInfo’: {‘FileStatus’: ‘NotCategorized’, ‘Sha1′: ’24F7BAF656DCAC1FF43E4479AD8A5F4DF8052900’, ‘Md5′: ’46C5070ED139CA8121C07EDA20587E3F’, ‘Sha256′: ’04FC2B072775EA05AB6C9E117EFBFD1C56D2F1B45D1AC175001A186452269F3C’, ‘FirstSeen’: ‘1970-01-01T00:00:00Z’, ‘LastSeen’: ‘1970-01-01T00:00:00Z’, ‘Size’: 464, ‘Type’: ‘text’}, ‘DynamicAnalysisResults’: {‘Detections’: [{‘Zone’: ‘Red’}, {‘Zone’: ‘Yellow’}], ‘SuspiciousActivities’: [{‘Zone’: ‘Red’}, {‘Zone’: ‘Yellow’}, {‘Zone’: ‘Grey’}], ‘NetworkActivities’: [{‘Zone’: ‘Red’}, {‘Zone’: ‘Yellow’}, {‘Zone’: ‘Green’}, {‘Zone’: ‘Grey’}]}}
[IOC]: 0067bc5d4d92fe9445e41f347944196e : {‘Zone’: ‘Red’, ‘FileGeneralInfo’: {‘FileStatus’: ‘Malware’, ‘Sha1’: ‘F666104C83CB18F2ED345A11C34EE9A32CD2ABC1’, ‘Md5’: ‘0067BC5D4D92FE9445E41F347944196E’, ‘Sha256’: ‘8B615582D92D42FEEFCEEBA03E65D16773F2B227ED1CD17C82462641A9D249D9’, ‘FirstSeen’: ‘2022-07-27T11:48:00Z’, ‘LastSeen’: ‘2022-07-30T12:44:00Z’, ‘Size’: 10466, ‘Type’: ‘Txt’, ‘HitsCount’: 10}, ‘DetectionsInfo’: [{‘LastDetectDate’: ‘2022-07-30T12:50:35.887Z’, ‘Zone’: ‘Red’, ‘DetectionName’: ‘Trojan.Python.Lofy.a’}], ‘DynamicAnalysisResults’: {‘Detections’: [{‘Zone’: ‘Red’}, {‘Zone’: ‘Yellow’}], ‘SuspiciousActivities’: [{‘Zone’: ‘Red’}, {‘Zone’: ‘Yellow’}, {‘Zone’: ‘Grey’}], ‘NetworkActivities’: [{‘Zone’: ‘Red’}, {‘Zone’: ‘Yellow’}, {‘Zone’: ‘Green’}, {‘Zone’: ‘Grey’}]}}
[IOC]: e1dc5ff6a1febdd4db11901fc295364f : {‘Zone’: ‘Green’, ‘FileGeneralInfo’: {‘FileStatus’: ‘NoThreats’, ‘Sha1’: ‘49217E09D0C33FF3C958AFBDCB60F977E10104E0’, ‘Md5’: ‘E1DC5FF6A1FEBDD4DB11901FC295364F’, ‘Sha256’: ‘EAB0020A475BB1CF70CA5C9569DEFE5F1A7160A9D334144DA47924418EE2C9E7’, ‘FirstSeen’: ‘2022-07-30T10:03:00Z’, ‘LastSeen’: ‘2022-07-30T10:20:00Z’, ‘Size’: 34768, ‘Type’: ‘Js’, ‘HitsCount’: 10}, ‘DynamicAnalysisResults’: {‘Detections’: [{‘Zone’: ‘Red’}, {‘Zone’: ‘Yellow’}], ‘SuspiciousActivities’: [{‘Zone’: ‘Red’}, {‘Zone’: ‘Yellow’}, {‘Zone’: ‘Grey’}], ‘NetworkActivities’: [{‘Zone’: ‘Red’}, {‘Zone’: ‘Yellow’}, {‘Zone’: ‘Green’}, {‘Zone’: ‘Grey’}]}}

Typical output of the check_iocs tool

The output is much more comprehensive than the one provided by the scanner and is JSON-encoded, so that it can be parsed automatically.

The Python API class

Both command line tools are actually using a single Python class to access the OpenTIP service, and you can use the source code of the tools as a reference for your own scripts.

The OpenTIP client can be easily instantiated with a few lines:

from opentip.client import OpenTIP
client = OpenTIP(APIKEY)

To query the OpenTIP for a known indicator, use a single call:

client.get_verdict_by_ioc(ioc_type, ioc)

For example:

>>> client.get_verdict_by_ioc(‘hash’, ‘0067bc5d4d92fe9445e41f347944196e’)
‘{“Zone”:”Red”,”FileGeneralInfo”:{“FileStatus”:”Malware”,”Sha1″:”F666104C83CB18F2ED345A11C34EE9A32CD2ABC1″,”Md5″:”0067BC5D4D92FE9445E41F347944196E”,”Sha256″:”8B615582D92D42FEEFCEEBA03E65D16773F2B227ED1CD17C82462641A9D249D9″,”FirstSeen”:”2022-07-27T11:48:00Z”,”LastSeen”:”2022-07-30T12:44:00Z”,”Size”:10466,”Type”:”Txt”,”HitsCount”:10},”DetectionsInfo”:[{“LastDetectDate”:”2022-07-30T12:50:35.887Z”,”Zone”:”Red”,”DetectionName”:”Trojan.Python.Lofy.a”}],”DynamicAnalysisResults”:{“Detections”:[{“Zone”:”Red”},{“Zone”:”Yellow”}],”SuspiciousActivities”:[{“Zone”:”Red”},{“Zone”:”Yellow”},{“Zone”:”Grey”}],”NetworkActivities”:[{“Zone”:”Red”},{“Zone”:”Yellow”},{“Zone”:”Green”},{“Zone”:”Grey”}]}}’

To scan a file (with upload turned on by default), returning a tuple of (filename, results), call:

client.scan_file(filename)

Example:

>>> client.scan_file(‘package/main.py’)
(‘package/main.py’, ‘{“Zone”:”Red”,”FileGeneralInfo”:{“FileStatus”:”Malware”,”Sha1″:”F666104C83CB18F2ED345A11C34EE9A32CD2ABC1″,”Md5″:”0067BC5D4D92FE9445E41F347944196E”,”Sha256″:”8B615582D92D42FEEFCEEBA03E65D16773F2B227ED1CD17C82462641A9D249D9″,”FirstSeen”:”2022-07-27T11:48:00Z”,”LastSeen”:”2022-07-30T12:44:00Z”,”Size”:10466,”Type”:”Txt”,”HitsCount”:10},”DetectionsInfo”:[{“LastDetectDate”:”2022-07-30T12:50:35.887Z”,”Zone”:”Red”,”DetectionName”:”Trojan.Python.Lofy.a”}],”DynamicAnalysisResults”:{“Detections”:[{“Zone”:”Red”},{“Zone”:”Yellow”}],”SuspiciousActivities”:[{“Zone”:”Red”},{“Zone”:”Yellow”},{“Zone”:”Grey”}],”NetworkActivities”:[{“Zone”:”Red”},{“Zone”:”Yellow”},{“Zone”:”Green”},{“Zone”:”Grey”}]}}’)

To disable file upload for unknown files, instantiate the OpenTIP with no_upload=True.

>>> client = OpenTIP(OPENTIP_APIKEY, no_upload=True)
>>> client.no_upload
True

Any ideas are welcome

This is just the beginning, and we welcome any kind of input, pull requests and feature requests to make the service more convenient. If you have any issues or questions regarding the scripts, please contact us by creating a Github issue or using the OpenTIP contact form.

We released Python-based command line tools for our OpenTIP service that also implement a client class that you can reuse in your own tools.Read More

Dependabot GitHub Actions Yh72sY

GitHub Dependabot Now Alerts Developers On Vulnerable GitHub Actions

Cloud-based code hosting platform GitHub has announced that it will now start sending Dependabot alerts for vulnerable GitHub Actions to help developers fix security issues in CI/CD workflows.
“When a security vulnerability is reported in an action, our team of security researchers will create an advisory to document the vulnerability, which will trigger an alert to impacted repositories,”Cloud-based code hosting platform GitHub has announced that it will now start sending Dependabot alerts for vulnerable GitHub Actions to help developers fix security issues in CI/CD workflows.
“When a security vulnerability is reported in an action, our team of security researchers will create an advisory to document the vulnerability, which will trigger an alert to impacted repositories,”Read More

Multiple Vulnerabilities Discovered in Device42 Asset Management Appliance

Four serious security issues on the popular appliance could be exploited by hackers with any level of access within the host network, Bitdefender researchers say.Four serious security issues on the popular appliance could be exploited by hackers with any level of access within the host network, Bitdefender researchers say.Read More